10. Passage of time, expansion of the universe and black holes – 2021

In another recent paper ‘Mach’s Principle and its connection with Inertia, Gravitation and Dark Matter’ I described how dark matter is more likely to be a gravitational effect rather than brought about by a halo of dark particles surrounding spiral galaxies. In spherical globular cluster galaxies, there is no indication of dark matter via anomalous rates of rotation as there is in spiral galaxies. This latter rapid rotation effect is explained in gravitational terms, in this earlier accompanying paper. One of the crucial assumptions to reach these conclusions was that the universe should be closed finite, and thus spherical, and expanding outwards.

In order to reach a rationale for dark matter I had to make one further major assumption, and that was that this spherical singular rim was traveling out at light speed. I had originally made this assumption because it also dovetailed in with part of my development of an explanation initiated in the late 1970s to describe the operation of memory, bizarre as this might seem. This will take a degree of careful explanation which is why I did not attempt it in the first paper on Mach’s Principle, lest it appear too farfetched and prejudice my case for dark matter. Nevertheless, there is a strong connection here that I shall now tersely describe as follows before moving on to the passage of time.

There are now about twelve relevant papers on the website under my name describing various aspects of what I call Duplication Theory. The latter is very similar in conclusion, albeit very different in approach to the morphic resonance of Rupert Sheldrake described in his first book published in 1981.  My proposals are based on quantum entanglement, and demonstrate how structures formed by interference patterns, created from electrochemical flow between neurons, dendritic and other connections in the brain, create images projected out holographically as duplicated representations of external reality registered as mostly visual images. These are then combined with the more vestigial structured holographic images projected from memory, the latter being transferred from past recollections, evoked by their similarity to the current visually experienced circumstances.  The initial trigger mechanisms, referred to as engrams, initiate relevant or similar sequences of longer-term memory. These engrams are stored physically in the brain, probably via DNA or similar structures, and they serve to instigate these longer episodes of eidetic memory which are executed via a quantum resonance action though time, and not stored physically. The process behind memory is summarised in my paper from 2018 on the academia website: ‘Transfer of information across Space and Time to explain Memory via Quantum Entanglement.’

This being a synopsis paper, I can only now give this briefest description of some of the principles involved, but one of the implications from my duplication theory (DT) is that it also accounts for the radiation of electromagnetic action in a non-local quantum manner as a corollary effect to the way that information is transferred across time by entanglement. This was an unintended spin off implication reinforcing the assumption that the universe would have to be closed, bounded and finite combined with the further assumption that this singular and spherical rim of the universe would have to be expanding out at light speed. This outer edge, this rim beyond which there is presumably some other continuum, would have to be the most singular concept in the universe.

A yet further implication of this is that all similar EM radiation created by the oscillation of charged sources (i.e., alternating currents in a conducting source) would be drawn out to duplicate the outwards action of this expanding singular rim, and what is more, in exactly the same direction and speed. Thus, EM radiation would be via a quantum resonance system of similar non local actions (i.e., similar intervals in time) through all space. This would be a direct opposite to, and corollary of my resonance through time effect of DT proposing that similar structures (intervals in space) resonate through all time. The hypothesis that the universe is finite and closed is supported by the wonderfully ingenious Absorber theory of Feynman and Wheeler (1945) which is well known enough to most physicists but seemingly not considered that relevant today.

One intended result of the Absorber theory was to show how the apparently outward only EM radiation (retarded light or other waves) could be regarded as returning at some other time, thus ensuring EM emission was symmetrical, which under current belief structures it is not, but which should be anathema to most clear-headed physicists. The other intention of these two exemplars of 20th century physics was to show how transmission of EM action was a non-local effect. In other words, to demonstrate how it was not necessary to have photons or particles transmitting action over distance. Furthermore, it would resolve anomalies about the difficulty of one particle going through two slits at the same time to produce an interference pattern on a screen. This is still a major and unresolved problem which encouraged me to use their Absorber theory in support of part of my DT conjectures which uses a quantum entanglement rationale to the same effect. Even more crucial in support is that the Absorber theory can only work on the assumption that the whole system has to be enclosed within an opaque box.

But that was exactly how my universe within the singular rim also has to be arranged. The latter would be not only opaque but absolutely impenetrable and impassable. It occurred to me there could be no better description of the opaqueness intended by the authors. Curiously the excellent book by mathematician P.C.W. Davies describing the theory does not consider the possibility of a bounded and finite universe, but then things have moved on since 1977 when his book was published. I also have no idea of whether Wheeler or Feynman considered that such an opaque universe exactly matches one which is bounded and finite. I am also not sure how the cosmologists saw the shape of the observable universe forty years ago, and although there are a number of theories today, many in radical conflict with each other, there is no final agreement. Thus, it still remains very much a tabula rasa, and a fundamental unknown. If once resolved, it would provide answers to many seemingly imponderable problems, just like that, is my optimistic supposition.

There is other supporting evidence for the shape of the universe being spherical supported by a paper published in Nature Astronomy in November 2019 showing that the latest Planck telescope results on the CMB (cosmic microwave background) indicated that the universe might curve in on itself like a sphere rather than lying flat like a sheet of paper as the original Planck team’s results concluded. This was carried out by Joseph Silk FRS of Oxford, and Alessandro Melchiorri of Sapienza University, Rome, and resulted from a reanalysis of the data of the original Planck team. 

I anticipate that it might take quite some time yet for my approach to dark matter to be adopted by others, should it be shown to be justified in principle, given that currently physics seems so very much taken up with the study of particles and the inertia of existing belief structures. This could take maybe another few years yet, five to ten maybe, unless anybody else with better academic credentials, manages to produce a gravitational solution with accompanying mathematical proof. Such a solution might also shed further light on why the rate of expansion of the universe is not constant but accelerating, which possibility I broach in my earlier paper on Mach’s principle and dark matter.

A result here would be an improvement for our understanding of the laws of nature and physics. It would involve a reappraisal of the significance of Mach’s principle, which to my knowledge has never been satisfactorily explained, together with its role in the inertia of mass. This presents a description of gravity’s operation, as described in my previous paper on Dark matter.

The Passage of Time

A spherical universe with its singular rim expanding out at light speed as described above and in the preceding paper, incorporates the further assumption that it mediates the velocity and direction of light and all EM radiation within. Fairly soon after I made this initial assumption, it occurred to me that such a scenario suggested that the rate of expansion might be connected with the passage of time, and it became increasingly apparent that it might be more than just connection but also a direct pro rata relationship. Time can perhaps best be considered with respect to Einstein’s theory of special relativity, one conclusion of which is that for an object with mass, time slows down as light speed is approached, to the point presumably where time stands still when notionally achieved.

In short, time has not passed at all for the expanding singular rim of the universe, although it increases incrementally with distance from that edge.  We also know that entropy is always increasing as the universe expands, and on that basis, it seems not unreasonable to make an assumption that the passage of time might be directly governed by the rate of expansion of the universe, and if so, presumably pro rata.

We also now know since 1999 from the supernova project headed by Saul Perlmutter, that not only is the universe expanding but also that from observations of supernovae, the rate of expansion is accelerating. You might ask that if so, then how would we ever know that the rate of expansion slowed down, or accelerated since we would just be part of it, with no basis for comparison?  However, what also occurs to me is that if the universe started to contract, time would start to reverse and I assume we could not avoid becoming aware of that. Just why the universe might be inclined to start to contract is open to question, but it would serve to maintain a satisfying degree of symmetry in existence generally and it is a subject in physics which is held in high regard when it comes to making exacting judgments.

I have explained in my paper preceding this one, how dark matter might be explained as a gravitational effect rather than dark particles. This was via an assumption that if the universe was closed and finite and expanding out as a sphere with its rim at light speed, then it would be possible to deduce a connection between gravitation and inertia via implications of Mach’s principle. This then caused me to speculate further on the other even more imponderable problem currently facing cosmology, which is that of black holes, and I have made a tentative suggestion as follows. 

Possible function of Black Holes

The scenario set out above might be relevant to this one other major unknown that has become apparent in recent decades. The existence and nature and purpose of black holes has been a source of bafflement to cosmologists and astrophysicists.  On the assumption that the rate of expansion of the universe is directly connected to and proportional with the passage of time, the following   occurred to me. Matter in its most basic and stable form exists, or can certainly be converted to radiation energy, according to the insight of Einstein’s formidable General theory of Relativity. If, for whatever reason, the universe was tending to expand too rapidly, perhaps due to an excess of matter being converted to radiation energy, possibly resulting in time passing too rapidly, then black holes could be explained as a sort of storage device, in the same manner as capacitors in electrical circuitry are used to store charge. This absorption and concentration effect of energy in the form of black holes, might be shown correspondingly, ex hypothesi, to slow down the expansion rate of the universe and with it, slow down the passage of time.

Quite why it might be necessary to slowdown time, I can only suggest that this might have something to do with the connection of the development rate of the understanding of the universe by different intelligent systems, such as the human mind or other sensate species developing consciousness. In the scenario proposed by Duplication theory, there is a direct link with increasing rate of understanding and the passage of time. This almost requires no explanation in terms of scientific theory, since from our experience it can be seen that our understanding of nature and the universe is increasing. However, to attempt to a brief synopsis of the link between the two, as time passes, entropy and disorder increase in general terms, and this is offset by what Schrödinger stated must exist as an ‘order from order’ principle, or a negative entropic tendency. There has to be a self-organisational principle behind increasing intelligence and understanding to counter increasing chaos as time passes and the universe expands. Thus, as entropy is spreading, so life is also advancing, in the form of increasing order to counter increasing chaos. This being so I conclude that there has to be life almost everywhere in the universe, impossible to hold back.

It also further occurs to me that such advances should not be allowed to accelerate at an irregular or excessive rate. This would be so that the development of a steady hierarchical growth rate of intelligence is maintained, rather than break out in uncontrolled spasms, out of kilter with other areas of increasing knowledge. This would be similar to the way in which cancerous growth in living cells can destroy the balance for systematic development of the overall body. In the same way that uneven technical development of separate sections of human civilisation too often leads to strife and suffering, via excess dominance of one race over another, the same would also apply to the way in which in life systems from different solar systems, and possibly galaxies, would hopefully not be inclined to interfere with the development of other younger extra planetary species.

Assuming there are other more advanced extra-terrestrial species, who might be advanced enough to be able to travel vast distances to visit Earth or other populated planets, then why have they not made contact?  Being far more enlightened than ourselves, they will avoid such meetings. If understanding and intelligence is advanced too rapidly at an uneven pace then that is equivalent to cancerous growth rather than steady hierarchical development. Perhaps these advanced life forms appreciate better than ourselves that nature has to run its course without being too much accelerated along its path via outside interference. Hence possibly there is some mediating role in the expansion of the universe with time via the storage capacity of Black holes for energy and mass.

This raises the further question of whether this applies to the universe as a whole or is limited to a galaxy or groups of galaxies. This is beyond anybody’s knowledge of extra-terrestrial intelligence, but on that issue I have only one teleological conviction, supported by little evidence as yet, other than that of Karl Friston’s Free Energy Principle perhaps. My rationalisation is that that life is advancing everywhere to counter the reverse tendency of increasing disorder and entropy. Indeed, the research of Nobel laureate Ilya Prigogine shows that when a system’s rate of dissipation becomes accelerated, then that system will tend to become order forming.

For further outline explanation of Duplication theory, there is a brief synopsis of three pages on its salient points dated 2017, although a recent paper from 2021, titled ‘Consciousness’ of 9 pages presents is a concise description of memory and its combination with intuitive ability.

Nick Greaves


Greaves, N.G. Mach’s Principle, and its connection with Inertia, Gravitation and Dark Matter, 2021

Greaves, N.G. Duplication Theory: Transfer of information across Space and Time to explain Memory via Quantum Entanglement, 2018

Wheeler, J & Feynman, R. interaction with the Absorber as the mechanism of Radiation Review, Modern Physics 1945

Greaves, N. G. The passage of Time  2019

Mach, E. The Science of Mechanics, The Open Court Publishing company 1910

Sheldrake, R.  A New Science of Life. Blond & Briggs  1981

Bohm, D. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. Routledge Kegan Paul  1980

Pribram, K.  Languages of the Brain.  G. Globus et al: eds. P56 Plenum, New York   1971

Prigogine, I. Time, Structure and Fluctuations, Nobel lecture, 1977

Schrodinger, E.  What is Life?  Cambridge University Press, 1944

Friston, K & Kilner, & Harrison, L.  A Free Energy Principle for the Brain, Journal of Physiology, Elsevier, 2006 

Greaves, N.G. Brief synopsis of salient points of Duplication theory, 2017

Greaves, N.G.  Consciousness: 2021